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Pyramids of Giza

Pyramids of Giza



-One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World


The Great Pyramids of Giza are the most famous structure around the world. They are one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the only one still remaining until now. They were built around 2560 BC and they back to the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. the Pyramids of Giza are marvelous feats of architecture. the Pyramids of Giza are considered the tallest man-made structure in the ancient times. The ancient name of the Pyramids OF Giza are Khufu's Horizon.


  -Three pyramids, three kings


The three main pyramids in Giza Necropolis were built over three generations. The Pyramid of Khufu is the largest pyramid in Giza built by pharaoh Khufu. Khufu's son, pharaoh Khafre, built the second pyramid the pyramid of Khafre. The third pyramid is the smallest one built by pharaoh Menkaure. Each pyramid was part of a royal mortuary complex that also included a temple at its base and a long stone causeway leading east from the plateau to a valley temple on the edge of the floodplain.


-Other smaller pyramids, and small tombs



There are many smaller pyramids for queens and several complexes for the workers. There is a major cemetery of small mastaba tombs for nobles. 



-A reference to the sun


The pyramid shape had a solar reference, maybe aim to be a solidified version of the sun rays. Texts said that the sun's rays were believed to be a ramp for the pharaoh that mounts it to climb the sky. The earliest pyramids, like the Step Pyramids of Djoser, were actually designed as a staircase. The pyramid was also connected to the sacred ben-ben stone, an icon of the primeval mound that was considered the place of initial creation. The pyramid was considered a place of regeneration for the deceased ruler.



 -Pyramids and Sphinx


The Pyramids of Giza include the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu), the Pyramid of Khafre or Chephren, and the Pyramid of Menkaure or Mykerinos. On the east side of the complex lies the Great Sphinx. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids.



-Khufu's pyramid & Complex


Known as the Great pyramid of Giza or the Pyramid of Cheops. It is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex. It is the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the only still remaining from them until now.


Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb and took over a 10- to 20-year. Initially standing at 146.5 meters (481 feet). The Great Pyramid of Giza is the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years until Lincoln Cathedral was finished in 1311 AD.


 Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered with limestone casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface, today is the underlying core structure.


There are many theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. The most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.


Inside the Great Pyramid there are three known chambers. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. Queen's chamber and King's chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The main part of the Giza complex is a set of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu, three pyramids for Khufu's wives, and smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs for nobles surrounding the pyramid.  


-Khafre's pyramid & complex


Khafre's Pyramid is the second largest and second tallest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza. It has a base of 215.5 m length and 136.4 meters height. It is made of limestone blocks weighing more than 2 tons each. Khafre's pyramid sits on bedrock 10 m (33 ft) higher than Khufu's pyramid, which makes it appear to be taller.


Khafre's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king's pyramid. Khafre's complex contained five boat-pits and a subsidiary pyramid with a serdab.



-Menkaure's Pyramid & Complex


Menkaure Pyramid is the smallest pyramid of the three major pyramids of Giza. It is located at Giza Plateau. It was built as a tomb for the Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure.at the first it was 65.5 meters of height (215). Now it stands at 61 m (204 feet) tall with a base of 108.5 m. it was constructed from limestone and granite.


Menkaure's pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king's pyramid. The valley temple had many statues of Menkaure. The mortuary temple also had several statues of Menkaure. the king's pyramid has three subsidiary or queen's pyramids. Only Menkaure's pyramid, from the four major monument, is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.




Sphinx known also as the Great Sphinx of Giza or Sphinx of Giza. It is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with a body of a lion and the head of a human. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre.    




There are many questions about the way of building these massive constructions. Actually, there are many construction theories, but most of them are based on the idea that the pyramids were built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. The center of the disagreements of this theory is by which the stones were conveyed and placed and how possible the method was.


 In building the pyramids, the architects might have developed their techniques over time. They selected a site on a flat area of bedrock which provided a stable foundation. They constructed the pyramids in horizontal levels, one on top of the other.


For the Great Pyramid of Giza, most of the sones for the interior seems to have been quarried immediately to the south of the construction site. The smooth exterior of the pyramid was made of a fine grade of white limestone that was quarried across the Nile.




The purpose of building the pyramids was not architectural but religious, the pyramids of Egypt were tombs, lineally descended from the most primitive of burial mounds.


  The pharaoh believed, like any commoner among his people, that every living body was inhabited by a double, or ka, which need not die with the breath. And that the Ka would survive all the more completely if the flesh were preserved against hunger, violence and decay.