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How Were the Egyptian Pyramids Built?


How Were the Egyptian Pyramids Built?


There are several theories about the ways of building the pyramids. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the seven ancient wonder of the world. It is the ideal example of how the ancient Egyptian civilization managed to build such structures thousands of years ago.


However, the modern technology we have today, we still cannot build as grand structure as the Pyramids. The Egyptian pyramids were built with care and thought, and to demolish these structures without the help of machines would take years.


There are many pyramids in many countries all around the world such as China and Spain but the pyramids of Egypt were fascinating, the oldest, the largest, and had much historical value.  


Ancient Egypt is one of the first civilization we don't understand their perceptions of organization and management.


-Building the Pyramids


The Pyramids were built in three steps:


1-Choosing the perfect building site

2-Site preparation

3-Raising the blocks


*The first step in building a pyramid was to choose a suitable site:


The ancient Egyptians had chosen the west bank of the Nile as a suitable site to build the pyramids as this the same side the sun set and they believed that the dead enter the underworld. And they were careful to choose the site on a high ground, to be away from the danger of the flooding during the Nile's inundation. However, the site could not be too far from the bank of the river because they would be used the river to transport blocks from the other side of the Nile. They had chosen a site at a point on the desert plateau that would prove a firm rock base capable of supporting the great weigh of the pyramid without any risk of outbreaking. It would also be easy reach of the capital, to the king could go to inspect the building work whenever he wished.


*Site Preparation:


The construction of the pyramid was not indiscriminate and the measurements were highly accurate.

At the first the workers prepared a stable foundation by removing the loose sand from the rock. After that they built low mud walls all around the base and cutting channels in a grid pattern over the surface to make the rock base absolutely flat. And also, they filled the channels with water and marked the level of the water. After the water had drained away, protruding rock would have been cut back to the level indicate, and any depressions filled stones to make a perfectly level surface.       

Each side of the pyramid had to face one of the cardinal points. Probably the builders established true north at the first and worked out the other directions from it. They may have found true north by taking a sighting on a particular star in the northern sky. Then they would observe the rising and setting of the star and mark its appearance and disappearance on an artificial horizon.

By bisecting the angle thus made, they would have a north-south line. They had instruments for drawing right angles so; they would then have been able to find east and west. Next, they had to make the base perfectly square. With all four sides exactly the same length and corners perfect right angles.


*Raising the Blocks:


Ancient Egyptians were used the rocky outcrop as a core for the pyramid to save the work. They were built the inner chambers and the passages independently and the pyramid built around them. the inner pyramid was built from limestone that cut from the desert plateau. When the principal structure was finished, the pyramid was completed also by encasing it with finely cut and dressed limestone from Tura. Sometimes they were used granite for the lower courses.

Until now we don not know the method of raising the pyramids. Until Roman times the Pulleys were not invented. However, the Greek historian Herodotus tells of levers being used to raise the blocks from one level to the next. The workers that worked in groups used ramp to haul the blocks into position. As the pyramid had become larger so the ramp would have been raised to help the workers to reach the next level. The major problem with this the ramp would have been huge as the pyramid itself and would have reached a huge distance into the desert.  

There is no sign of such a structure has definitely been identified at any of the various pyramid sites. There was another idea is that the ramp would around the pyramid and was dismantled when the pyramid was completed. The methods of construction are still strongly debated.


-Egyptian Pyramids Facts and FAQ


What did the pyramids represent?


The Egyptians thought that the pyramids were represented the benben


The pyramids are symbols of stars, the rays sun that touching the Earth, the concepts changing according to shifts in religious beliefs.


Where were the pyramids built?


 most of the pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile. Such as the most important complexes are at Giza, Saqqara, Dahshur and Meidum.


Why did the Egyptians build the pyramids?


The ancient Egyptians were built the pyramids for a religious purpose and they were used as tombs for pharaohs. The pyramids were part of a funerary complex.


Temples, courtyards, boat pits, small pyramids and a cult pyramid were part of the complex.


Who built the pyramids?


King Djoser built the first pyramid the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.


King Snefru built the first true pyramid at Dahshur.


 Snefru's son, Khufu, built the Great Pyramid at Giza.


The theories about the builders of the ancient Egyptians pyramids are highly debated. It appears that, unlike to the popular belief, the pyramids were built by the Egyptian workers, and not slaves. Farmers lived in worker village and built the pyramids while the Nile was flooding. 


Scholars known about the administration of the pyramid builders from their cemetery and village. Administrators divided workers into crews that had names and overseers regulated ever aspect of the building.


By the time, pharaohs stopped building the pyramids, until now we don not the accurate reason for this change. Many scholars think pharaohs started building rock-cut tombs to stop grave robbers. Similarly, to the previous periods, the change could represent shifts in religious ideas, but it is still uncertain