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The Nile River

The Nile River

 Nile Cruise

The Nile River has a long and a very important place in the history of Egypt. it is the main source of water in Egypt. it is the lifeblood for the Egyptian. The Nile is the longest river in the world and called the father of African rivers. It is measuring 6,650 kilometers (4,130 miles). The Nile River located in North-West Africa and extends from Sudan's capital Khartoum to the Nile Delta in the north of Egypt. as I said before the Nile River has very long history from thousand of years and there are many facts and secrets about it for that I'm here to tell you about all the facts.


-Facts about the Nile River 

1-Origins of the Name 

The historians aren't agreeing on the origins of the name. on the one hand, some historians think that the name comes from the Greek word "neilos" that means "Valley". On the other hand, other historians think that the name comes from the Semitic word "Nahar" which means "River".


2- the longest River

It was known that the Nile River is the longest river in the world. It flows 6,650 kilometers (4,130 miles). But recently the    Brazilian government says that the Amazon River, that located in South America, is the longer than the Nile River


3- The Source of the Nile River

There is a very great disagreement about the source of the Nile. Lake Victoria is considered the first source of the Nile, but the lake has many smaller rivers that flows into it like the Kagera River and Ruvyironza River. Though, it is very difficult to know which river is the main source. However, recently the researchers are agreeing on that Kargera River is the origin of the Nile River.


4- the Nile flows through eleven countries

When we talk about the Nile River or when the people hear the word "Nile River" they think that the Nile is only in Egypt. but, in fact the Nile River goes through 11 countries including:

-Tanzania                                                                 -Uganda

-Democratic Republic of the Congo                    - Rwanda

-Burundi                                                                    -Ethiopia

-Kenya                                                                        -Eritrea

-South Sudan                                                            -Sudan




5-Aswan High Dam

The Nile River was flooding annually and the flood cause many damages for the buildings and the crops. And in the drier years there weren't water and also the crops were damage and dried up. So, in 1970 the Egyptian government decided to build the Aswan High Dam to limit the Nile flood and protect the crops and the buildings from it.



  5- Nile Crocodiles

Nile crocodile is one of the most interesting and strange facts about the Nile River. The Nile River is the home of the Nile Crocodile, one of the most dangerous and largest crocodiles. The Nile Crocodile kill many people every year. The main habitat of them is the southern parts of the Nile River. But also, there are many Nile Crocodiles in the region of the Nile Delta.



6- 80 million people live in the Nile Delta

The Word delta gets its name from the Greek letter delta. Delta looks like the triangular area at the mouth of the Nile. The delta is almost 160 km in length and spans out over 240 km of coastline. The Nile Delta has been planted from thousands of the years until now and it is a major source of agriculture in Egypt. The Nile Delta is the main region of oil and gas producing in Egypt.



7-The Nile River has Two Main Tributaries

The Nile has two major tributaries the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The White Nile is the longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of the center of Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows in the north through TanzaniaLake VictoriaUganda and South Sudan.





The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just in the north of the Sudan's capital Khartoum.



8-Rosetta Stone

The famous Rosetta Stone was found in the Nile Delta in the city of Rosetta, in 1787. The stone is an ancient artifact that played a major role in the understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics.


-The River Nile in Ancient Egypt

The Nile River started flowing north towards Egypt, around five million years ago.

The River Nile's water was the source of irrigation for ancient Egyptian and the marshlands were the home of the flocks of waterfowl and papyrus beds for building and paper.


The ancient Egyptians were playing competitive water sports on the Nile and enjoy fishing and rowing.


The Nile was flooded in around September of each year. Egypt and was left black sediment. So, the ancient Egyptians named the river "Ar or Aur", meaning black.




They called this rich black soil the "Gift of the Nile"


The ancient Egyptians used a Nilometer to measure the height of the annual flood. And from this way they could know if the crops would be good or no that year.




The ancient Egyptians thought that the flood of the Nile caused heavy rains and snow every year because the tears of the goddess Isis as she cried for Osiris her dead husband.


The ships that carrying goods and people from Aswan to Alexandria, was taking the Nile as the transportation link to pass to their destination.


Hapi was the god of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion. and he was honored for the annual flood of the Nile which brought significant fertility to the land.

The ancient Egyptians made the papyrus paper from the reeds that grew along the River Nile. They used the paper for writing books, messages and letters.

They also used reeds to build boats, which they used to transport and trade.

The Nile River was very important for the ancient Egyptian because they depend on it in trade, transportation, food, agriculture and drink.



Seasons of the Nile

The ancient Egyptian make their calendar around the Nile, the calendar consisted of twelve months every month has 30 days. and the calendar was divided into three seasons, Akhet or inundation, was considered the first season and was the time of the flooding. The second season is Peret, the growing season. The third season is Shemu the harvest or the drought season.


The symbolism of the Nile in Ancient Egyptian

The Nile River was known as the "Father of Life " and the "Mother of All Men". They considered the Nile as a divine manifestation of the god Hapi, the god of fertility and popular water. The goddess MA 'at, the goddess of truth, balance and harmony and they were many other gods and goddess associated with the Nile Like the goddess Hathor and after that Isis and Osiris. The god Khnum, the god of the source of the Nile water who was the responsible of the its flow and controlled the annual flood which was so important for fertilizing the land.